Additional Resources

Technical Terms
Climate change A change in climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over omparable time periods (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change;
Disaster A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources (
Emergency An unforeseen combination of circumstances or the resulting state that calls for immediate action (Merriam Webster Online Dictionary,
Hazard Any phenomenon, substance or situation, which has the potential to cause disruption or damage to infrastructure and services, people, their property and their environment (Abarquez and Murshed, 2004).
Mitigation Taking action in the timeframe before a disaster to lessen post-event damage to lives and property. In risk management, many hazards such as earthquakes cannot be reduced, but the risk from that hazard can be reduced, or mitigated, for example by constructing earthquake-resistant buildings, or shelves that prevent objects from sliding off. The former is structural mitigation, the latter is non-structural.
Prevention Measures taken to reduce the likelihood of losses. Ideally, these measures would seek to reduce losses to zero, but this often is not possible. Key question: How much prevention do you need to undertake?
Recovery The process of returning the institution to normal operations,which may also involve the repair and restoration of the building or site.
Response The reaction to an incident or emergency to assess the damage or impact to the site and its components, and actions taken to prevent people and the property from suffering further damage.
Risk The chance of something happening that will have an impact upon objectives. (Emergency Management Australia, 2000).
Vulnerability The susceptibility and resilience of the community and environment to hazards.‘Resilience’ relates to ‘existing controls’ and the capacity to reduce or sustain harm.‘Susceptibility’ relates to ‘exposure’ (Emergency Management Australia, 2000).
World Heritage property World Heritage properties are those defined in Articles 1 and 2 f the World Heritage Convention and inscribed on the World Heritage List on the basis of their outstanding universal value, which is fulfilled through meeting one or more of criteria (i)–(x) in the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention (UNESCO / WHC, 2008a).